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Then the mounted sections are treated with the appropriate stain. Sections can be cut through the tissue in a number of directions.
For pathological evaluation of tissues, vertical sectioning, cut perpendicular to the surface of the tissue to produce a cross section is the usual method.
Horizontal also known as transverse or longitudinal sectioning, cut along the long axis of the tissue, is often used in the evaluation of the hair follicles and pilosebaceous units.
Fixed or unfixed tissue may be frozen and sliced using a microtome mounted in a refrigeration device known as a cryostat. The frozen sections are mounted on a glass slide and may be stained to enhance the contrast between different tissues.
Unfixed frozen sections can also be used for studies requiring enzyme localization in tissues and cells. It is necessary to fix tissue for certain procedures such as antibody linked immunofluorescence staining.
Frozen sectioning can also be used to determine if a tumour is malignant when it is found incidentally during surgery on a patient.
Biological tissue has little inherent contrast in either the light or electron microscope. Staining is employed to give both contrast to the tissue as well as highlighting particular features of interest.
Where the underlying mechanistic chemistry of staining is understood, the term histochemistry is used. Hematoxylin, a basic dye, stains nuclei blue due to an affinity to nucleic acids in the cell nucleus; eosin, an acidic dye, stains the cytoplasm pink.
Uranyl acetate and lead citrate are commonly used to impart contrast to tissue in the electron microscope. There are many other staining techniques that have been used to selectively stain cells and cellular components.
One of these techniques involves marking peripheral tumors or surgical margins, in which a certain color of dye is applied to the posterior border of a sample, another to the anterior, etc.
Other compounds used to color tissue sections include safranin , Oil Red O , Congo red , Fast green FCF , silver salts, and numerous natural and artificial dyes that usually originated from the development of dyes for the textile industry.
Histochemistry refers to the science of using chemical reactions between laboratory chemicals and components within tissue. A commonly performed histochemical technique is the Perls Prussian blue reaction, used to demonstrate iron deposits in diseases like hemochromatosis.
Histology samples have often been examined by radioactive techniques. In historadiography , a slide sometimes stained histochemically is X-rayed.
More commonly, autoradiography is used to visualize the locations to which a radioactive substance has been transported within the body, such as cells in S phase undergoing DNA replication which incorporate tritiated thymidine , or sites to which radiolabeled nucleic acid probes bind in in situ hybridization.
For autoradiography on a microscopic level, the slide is typically dipped into liquid nuclear tract emulsion, which dries to form the exposure film.
Individual silver grains in the film are visualized with dark field microscopy. Recently, antibodies have been used to specifically visualize proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
This process is called immunohistochemistry , or when the stain is a fluorescent molecule, immunofluorescence. This technique has greatly increased the ability to identify categories of cells under a microscope.
Other advanced techniques, such as nonradioactive in situ hybridization, can be combined with immunochemistry to identify specific DNA or RNA molecules with fluorescent probes or tags that can be used for immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked fluorescence amplification especially alkaline phosphatase and tyramide signal amplification.
Fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy are used to detect fluorescent signals with good intracellular detail. Digital cameras are increasingly used to capture histological and histopathological image.
A Text and Atlas. Plastic embedding is commonly used in the preparation of material for electron microscopy. Tissues are embedded in epoxy resin.
Very thin sections less than 0. The sections are stained with electron dense stains uranium and lead so that they can be seen with the electron microscope.
Artifacts are structures or features in tissue that interfere with normal histological examination. These are not always present in normal tissue and can come from outside sources.
Artifacts interfere with histology by changing the tissues appearance and hiding structures. These can be divided into two categories:.
These are features and structures that have been introduced prior to the collection of the tissues. A common example of these include: Artifacts can result from tissue processing.
Processing commonly leads to changes like shrinkage, washing out of particular cellular components, color changes in different tissues types and alterations of the structures in the tissue.
Because these are caused in a laboratory the majority of post histology artifacts can be avoided or removed after being discovered.
Normal patterning of tissues and artifacts resulting from the tissue preparation process ensure that each histological section is unique.
Like a piece of biological art these images provide a deep insight into the organization and function of our bodies. Histological patterns that look like everyday objects or features are emerging on social and scientific communities  and even in histopathology journal articles.
It demonstrates that histology can be appreciated by not only the detail-oriented pathologist but also the art loving layperson and is making histology and pathology more accessible and less daunting as a complex science.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Historiography. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology. A Brief Survey of Sources". The Genesis of Cancer: A Study in the History of Ideas.
Johns Hopkins University Press. The arteries and the veins, long sources of contention, are classified today as compound tissues.
The absorbents and the exhalants which Bichat thought to be open-ended vessels have dropped out or been replaced by the lymphatics.
His medullary system has no counterpart among the present-day tissues. The University of Chicago Press. International Journal of Surgical Pathology.
Simple squamous epithelium Endothelium Mesothelium Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Respiratory epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified cuboidal epithelium Stratified columnar epithelium Transitional epithelium Urothelium.
Tubular gland Alveolar gland. Serous glands Mucous glands. Myoepithelial cell Serous demilune Ducts: Adherens junction Cadherin Desmosome Desmoglein Ion channels: Desmosome Desmoplakin Plakoglobin Tonofibril other membrane proteins: Soft tissue Fibrosis Scarring.
Reticular Adipose Brown White. Calmodulin Vascular smooth muscle. Sarcospan Laminin, alpha 2. Man gillar ju denna! Athletic vs Atletico, copa femenina.
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