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Juni Neuhausen - Die tödliche Attacke von Lion K. auf die Familie seiner Ex-Freundin beschäftigt die Münchner Polizei noch immer. Nun sind die. Juni Einiges spricht dafür, dass Lion K. zustach, weil ein Mädchen seine Liebe nicht erwiderte. Dessen Schwester ist tot, der Zustand von Mutter und. Juni lion könig münchen neuhausen mord polizei kripo u-haft messer attacke angriff Tötete Lion K. (19) die Schwester seiner Ex aus Rache?. Haftbefehl gegen Lion K. Im Interesse unserer User behalten wir uns vor, jeden Beitrag vor der Veröffentlichung zu prüfen. Teilen Twittern per Mail versenden per Whatsapp verschicken. Mehr Informationen finden Sie hier. Unklar ist, ob sie der Täter mitgebracht hat. Auch der Familienhund wurde attackiert, überlebte den Angriff aber. Einiges spricht dafür, dass Lion K. Den Einsatzkräften bot sich in der Wohnung im vierten Stock ein schreckliches Bild: Bestatter transportieren Sofias Leiche ab Foto: Sie sind etwa 30 Jahre alt und dunkelhaarig. Woran liegt das nur? Nachbarn berichten, dass Lion K.

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Er dürfte also aufgefallen sein. Beide erlitten bei dem Angriff schwerste Verletzungen. Thüringen und Brandenburg folgen. Er sitzt in Untersuchungshaft. Ihr Kommentar wurde abgeschickt. Seine Eltern sind getrennt, zuletzt wohnte er bei seinem Vater in Neuhausen kaum zwei Kilometer vom Tatort entfernt. Startpage Anonyme Emails über:

While the uncle rules with an iron paw, the prince grows up beyond the Savannah, living by a philosophy: No worries for the rest of your days.

But when his past comes to haunt him, the young prince must decide his fate: Will he remain an outcast or face his demons and become what he needs to be?

Its every bit as majestic and great as it has been before. As long as Mufasa and Simba are there. Soon Simba is able to walk and talk and is voiced by Jonathon Taylor Thomas.

After hearing about an elephant graveyard from Scar, he and his friend Nala Niketa Calame visit it. They meet three bumbling hyenas: Scar convinces Simba that he killed Mufasa, not Scar.

So Simba flees into exile. The Lion King really benefits from the larger screen. Its lavish landscapes will be able to capture you more, and you can really savor the animation.

In fact, its camera movement was so majestic that you actually felt like you were part of the pride of lions. The music boomed and really created the atmosphere.

Although I had seen this picture before, I still was tense because of the way the music played out. Most of the time, I would just roll my eyes at the attempt to make me nervous.

Unlike such new Disney pics like Lilo and Stitch, the songs actually did some good. They took you out of a somewhat dreary mood and put a smile on your face and made your feet want to tap along.

There were only a few, but they were very entertaining. And the Circle of Life song at the beginning was beautiful, with its perfect pictures and perfect sound.

The mood that the music and the script brought out could damper your day, so be warned. This is one movie where you can feel for the characters.

The Lion King is a majestic movie, not without humor, that is for almost all to see. Plus, we hear why more than one celeb wants to be snowed in with Idris Elba.

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Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century; members of this group are invariably large vertebrates and include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, large primates and other big cats; zoos sought to gather as many of these species as possible.

They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes. His two sisters, born in , were still alive in August At the ancient Egyptian cities of Taremu and Per-Bast were temples dedicated to the lion goddesses of Egypt, Sekhmet and Bast , and at Taremu there was a temple dedicated to the son of the deity Maahes the lion prince, where lions were kept and allowed to roam within the temple.

The Greeks called the city Leontopolis "City of Lions" and documented that practice. Lions were kept and bred by Assyrian kings as early as BC, [] and Alexander the Great was said to have been presented with tame lions by the Malhi of northern India.

Roman notables including Sulla , Pompey and Julius Caesar often ordered the mass slaughter of hundreds of lions at a time.

Marco Polo reported that Kublai Khan kept lions. The first European "zoos" spread among noble and royal families in the 13th century, and until the 17th century were called seraglios ; at that time they came to be called menageries , an extension of the cabinet of curiosities.

They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. By extension, menageries and seraglios served as demonstrations of the dominance of humanity over nature; the defeat of such natural "lords" by a cow in astonished spectators and the flight of an elephant before a rhinoceros drew jeers.

The frequency of such fights slowly declined in the 17th century with the spread of menageries and their appropriation by commoners.

The tradition of keeping big cats as pets lasted into the 19th century, at which time it was seen as highly eccentric. The presence of lions at the Tower of London was intermittent, being restocked when a monarch or his consort, such as Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI , either sought or were given animals.

Records indicate animals in the Tower of London were kept in poor conditions in the 17th century, in contrast to more open conditions in Florence at the time.

The trade in wild animals flourished alongside improved colonial trade of the 19th century; lions were considered fairly common and inexpensive.

Although they would barter higher than tigers, they were less costly than larger or more difficult-to-transport animals such as the giraffe and hippopotamus, and much less than giant pandas.

Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the s. Lion hunting has occurred since ancient times and was often a royal pastime.

The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule.

The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears.

Lions were also hunted during the Mughal Empire , where Emperor Jahangir is said to have excelled at it.

Royal hunting of lions was intended to demonstrate the power of the king over nature. The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage.

Historically, lions were hunted by individuals, however, due to reduced lion populations, elders discourage solo lion hunts. This resulted in big cats being always suspected of being man-eaters, representing "both the fear of nature and the satisfaction of having overcome it".

Lion-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of lions in combat with other animals, usually dogs. Records of it exist in ancient times through until the seventeenth century.

It was finally banned in Vienna by and England in The term is also often used for the taming and display of other big cats such as tigers, leopards and cougars.

The practice began in the early 19th century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh , who both toured widely and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.

Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore "the lions of Mysore" , an idea that Amburgh quickly borrowed.

These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema.

In demonstrating the superiority of human over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.

One well-publicised case is the Tsavo maneaters ; in , 28 officially recorded railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenya.

The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favoured by all researchers; an analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.

The authors note the relationship is well-attested among other pantherines and primates in the fossil record.

American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behaviour in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from to At least villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period — a number far exceeding the Tsavo attacks.

While the expansion of villages into bush country is one concern, the authors argue conservation policy must mitigate the danger because in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.

Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. According to Robert R.

Frump, Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park, South Africa, at night are attacked and eaten by lions; park officials have said man-eating is a problem there.

Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night. For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm.

Packer estimates between and Tanzanians are killed each year by wild animals and that lions are thought to kill at least 70 of these.

According to Packer between and , lions attacked people in Tanzania and killed Packer and Ikanda are among the few conservationists who believe western conservation efforts must take account of these matters because of ethical concerns about human life and the long-term success of conservation efforts and lion preservation.

A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, said it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess beneath a cracked molar and wrote, "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing".

The "All-Africa" record of man-eating generally is considered to be a collection of incidents between the early s and the late s in modern-day Tanzania inflicted by a pride known as the "Njombe lions".

Game warden and hunter George Rushby eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1, to 2, people in Njombe district.

Sometimes, Asiatic lions may become man-eaters. The area of the Gir sanctuary is now insufficient to sustain their large number [] and lions have moved outside it, making them a potential threat to people in and around the park.

The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. It has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature.

The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness. Depictions of lions are known from the Upper Paleolithic period.

Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15, to 17, years old.

The ancient Egyptians portrayed several of their war deities as lionesses, which they revered as fierce hunters.

Egyptian deities associated with lions include: The lion was also believed to act as a guide to the underworld, through which the sun was believed to pass each night.

The presence of lion-footed tombs found in Egypt and images of mummies carried on the backs of lions suggests this close association of the lions with the underworld.

In Sub-Saharan Africa , cultural views of the lion have varied by region. In some cultures, the lion symbolises power and royalty, and some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname.

In parts of West Africa, to be compared with a lion was considered to be a great compliment. In parts of West and East Africa, the lion is associated with healing and is regarded as the link between seers and the supernatural.

In other East African traditions, the lion is the symbol of laziness. The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship.

The theme of the royal lion hunt, a common motif in the early iconography in West Asia, symbolized death and resurrection; the continuation of life was ensured by the killing of a god-like animal.

In the Book of Judges , Samson kills a lion as he travels to visit a Philistine woman. The power and ferocity of the lion is invoked when describing the anger of God Amos 3: The book of Isaiah uses the imagery of a lion laying with a calf and child, and eating straw to portray the harmony of creation Isa In the Puranic texts of Hinduism , Narasimha "man-lion" a half-lion, half-man incarnation or avatar of Vishnu , is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu ; [] Vishnu takes the form of half-man, half-lion] creature in Narasimha, where he has a human torso and lower body, and a lion-like face and claws.

It was originally used only by Rajputs , a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in , the Sikhs also adopted the name "Singh" due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh.

Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by over 20 million Sikhs worldwide. The Asiatic lion is found as an emblem on numerous flags and coats of arms across Asia, including on the National Emblem of India.

The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art ; it was first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn period fifth or sixth century BC and became more popular during the Han Dynasty BC — AD when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection.

Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty after the sixth century AD, lions were usually depicted wingless with shorter, thicker bodies and curly manes.

Lion-headed figures and amulets were excavated in tombs in the Greek islands of Crete , Euboea , Rhodes , Paros and Chios. They are associated with the Egyptian deity Sekhmet and date to the early Iron Age between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.

Similarly the wearing of lion skin such as the lion skin worn by Herackles also symbolizes victory over death. Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms , either as a device on shields or as supporters , but the lioness is used much less frequently.

Such descriptions specify whether lions or other creatures are "rampant" rearing or "passant" crouching. The lion is used as a symbol of sporting teams, from national association football teams such as England , Scotland and Singapore to famous clubs such as the Detroit Lions [] of the NFL, Chelsea [] and Aston Villa , a team of the English Premier League , [] and by the Premiership itself, Eintracht Braunschweig of the Bundesliga , and many smaller clubs around the world.

Lions continue to appear in modern literature as characters including the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from The Chronicles of Narnia series written by C.

Lewis , [] and the comedic Cowardly Lion in L. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lion disambiguation.

A species of large cat in the subfamily Pantherinae. Linnaeus , [3]. Panthera hybrid , Liger , and Tigon. A pride of lion headed by one male at Masai Mara , Kenya.

Lioness in a burst of speed while hunting in the Serengeti. Four lionesses catching a cape buffalo in the Serengeti. Lion hunting , Lion-baiting , and Lion taming.

Cultural depictions of lions. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Tomus I decima, reformata ed. Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Verlag der Kakao-Compagnie Theodor Reichardt. A Fossil Record from ".

Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Journal of the Geological Society of India. Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Archived from the original PDF on 21 January Retrieved 23 November Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre.

Archived from the original PDF on Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Retrieved 4 September The Illustrated Natural History.

The Field Guide to Carnivores of the World 2 ed. Pantherinae , and the influence of fossil taxa and missing characters".

Deutschland in der Urzeit in German. Klima und Tierwelt im Wandel in German. University of Arizona Press. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Mystery Cats of the World. The Rosen Publishing Group. Retrieved 4 July The Story of Leopons. Retrieved 25 January Archived from the original PDF on 28 July Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion.

Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. Volume 65 of Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Zoological Society of London.

Wild Cats of the World. Retrieved 1 September By any other mane". Implications for its ex situ conservation".

A Field Guide to Indian Mammals. The Dutch Zoo Conservation Fund for funding the project. Retrieved 7 July One Is Likely a Female". Retrieved 18 April Open Science Repository Biology: The White Lions of Timbavati.

Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Maneless lions live one guy per pride". The behavior guide to African mammals: University of California Press.

The University of Chicago Press. University of Edinburgh, UK: Department of Forestry and Natural Resources. Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki: Journal of Animal Ecology.

African Journal of Ecology. African Journal of Ecology Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Retrieved 18 February African Lion Working Group.

Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 20 July African Wildlife Foundation website. Retrieved 6 June A Study of Predation and Social Behaviour.

Carnivore Conservation 1st ed. Since then, KHH Double Lion has received awards and certifications from local and international bodies; in acknowledgement of great commitment from the Top Management and all employees providing top quality products and services to our customers.

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Welcome to our company and our factory when you get the chance to come to China. Above all, we have our own factory, so we can offer you good quality and the most favorable price.

If you are interested in the bracelets,please contact us to satisfy your need. Every piece of our jewelry is theoroughly inspected being packed and is carefully packed for shpped.

Please contact us with the picture of the damage and we will help you to resolve the issue. Hot sale 3D lion pattern cool round shape gold keychain religious keychains with flat ring.

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Lyricist Tim Rice , who was working with composer Alan Menken on songs for Aladdin , was invited to write the songs, and accepted on the condition of finding a composing partner.

It was the fourth-best-selling album of the year on the Billboard and the top-selling soundtrack. Back in the Habit in theaters; by then, only a third of The Lion King had been completed.

The VHS tape quickly became the best-selling videotape of all time: The DVD release featured two versions of the film on the first disc, a remastered version created for the IMAX release and an edited version of the IMAX release purporting to be the original theatrical version.

In January , the film, along with the sequels, went back into moratorium. With the earnings of the 3D run, The Lion King surpassed all the aforementioned films but Toy Story 3 to rank as the second-highest-grossing animated film worldwide—later dropping to ninth—and it remains the highest-grossing hand-drawn animated film.

In , The Lion King was converted to 3D for a two-week limited theatrical re-issue and subsequent 3D Blu-ray release.

This made The Lion King the first re-issue release to earn the number-one slot at the American weekend box office since the re-issue of Return of the Jedi in March After its initial box-office success, many theaters decided to continue to show the film for more than two weeks, even though its 3D Blu-ray release was scheduled for two-and-a-half weeks after its theatrical release.

Audiences have been hit with three 3D re-releases in the year since, meaning the novelty value has definitely worn off.

The Lion King was released to critical acclaim. It also ranked 56th on their "Top Animation Movies". Roger Ebert gave the film three and a half stars out of a possible four and called it "a superbly drawn animated feature" and wrote in his print review, "The saga of Simba, which in its deeply buried origins owes something to Greek tragedy and certainly to Hamlet , is a learning experience as well as an entertainment.

Ebert and his partner Gene Siskel both gave the film a "Thumbs Up" but Siskel said that it was not as good as earlier films such as Beauty and the Beast and was "a good film, not a great one".

If truth be told, even for adults it is downright strange. Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly praised the film, writing that it "has the resonance to stand not just as a terrific cartoon but as an emotionally pungent movie".

The Lion King is the most mature in more than one sense of these films, and there clearly has been a conscious effort to please adults as much as children.

The staff of TV Guide wrote that while The Lion King was technically proficient and entertaining, it "offers a less memorable song score than did the previous hits, and a hasty, unsatisfying dramatic resolution.

Matthew Broderick believed initially that he was, in fact, working on an American version of Kimba since he was familiar with the Japanese original.

Protests were raised against one scene where it appears as if the word "SEX" might have been embedded into the dust flying in the sky when Simba flops down, [] which conservative activist Donald Wildmon asserted was a subliminal message intended to promote sexual promiscuity.

Animator Tom Sito has stated that the letters spell "SFX" a common abbreviation for " special effects " , not with an "E" instead of the "F", and were intended as an innocent "signature" created by the effects animation team.

The first Lion King -related animated projects involved the characters of Timon and Pumbaa. First, the duo starred in the animated short "Stand by Me", featuring Timon singing the eponymous song , which was released in accompanying the theatrical release of Tom and Huck.

Disney released two direct-to-video films related to The Lion King. It is a prequel in showing how Timon and Pumbaa met each other, and also a parallel in that it also depicts what the characters were retconned to have done during the events of the original movie.

Production for the film began in May Along with the film release, three different video games based on The Lion King were released by Virgin Interactive in December There the plotline is loosely related to the later part of the original film, with all of the main characters except Zazu and Sarabi.

Walt Disney Theatrical produced a musical stage adaptation of the same name, which premiered in Minneapolis, Minnesota in July , and later opened on Broadway in October at the New Amsterdam Theatre.

Mark Mancina did the musical arrangements and new orchestral tracks. The first, " The Legend of the Lion King ", featured a recreation of the film through life-size puppets of its characters, and ran from to at Magic Kingdom in Walt Disney World.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the upcoming remake of the same name, see The Lion King film.

For the franchise as a whole, see The Lion King franchise. For other uses, see The Lion King disambiguation. Roger Allers Rob Minkoff. List of characters in The Lion King.

The pitch for the story was a lion cub gets framed for murder by his uncle set to the music of Elton John. Good luck with that.

The Lion King soundtrack. The Lion King film. The Lion King video game. The Lion King musical. British Board of Film Classification.

Retrieved July 21, Retrieved October 4, How the Zebra Got Its Stripes: Retrieved August 5, The Magic Behind the Voices: Walt Disney Home Entertainment.

James Cummins Book Seller. Archived from the original on April 13, Retrieved October 22, Archived from the original PDF on February 22, Retrieved February 14, Retrieved October 24, The art of The Lion King.

The Lion King laserdisc: Retrieved April 5, The Los Angeles Times. The New York Times. Retrieved July 11, Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved December 24, Archived from the original on May 25, Retrieved May 24, Platinum Edition Disc 1 , Music: Platinum Edition Disc 1: Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved June 25, The Musical Journey Continues Retrieved August 12, Den of Geek Dennis Publishing.

Retrieved March 12, Research in media promotion. The Disneyization of Society. Retrieved July 17, Archived from the original on February 22, Retrieved July 7, Generation length of the lion is about seven years.

She will often hunt alone while the cubs are still helpless, staying relatively close to the den. Usually, the mother does not integrate herself and her cubs back into the pride until the cubs are six to eight weeks old.

Pride lionesses often synchronise their reproductive cycles and communal rearing and suckling of the young, which suckle indiscriminately from any or all of the nursing females in the pride.

The synchronization of births is advantageous because the cubs grow to being roughly the same size and have an equal chance of survival, and sucklings are not dominated by older cubs.

When first introduced to the rest of the pride, lion cubs lack confidence when confronted with adults other than their mother.

They soon begin to immerse themselves in the pride life, however, playing among themselves or attempting to initiate play with the adults.

Male tolerance of the cubs varies — sometimes a male will patiently let the cubs play with his tail or his mane, whereas another may snarl and bat the cubs away.

Weaning occurs after six or seven months. Male lions reach maturity at about three years of age and at four to five years are capable of challenging and displacing adult males associated with another pride.

They begin to age and weaken at between 10 and 15 years of age at the latest. Females often fiercely defend their cubs from a usurping male but are rarely successful unless a group of three or four mothers within a pride join forces against the male.

Both male and female lions may be ousted from prides to become nomads, although most females usually remain with their birth pride.

When a pride becomes too large, however, the youngest generation of female cubs may be forced to leave to find their own territory. Lions of both sexes may interact homosexually.

Lions are shown to be involved in group homosexual and courtship activities; males will also head-rub and roll around with each other before simulating sex together.

Although adult lions have no natural predators, evidence suggests most die violently from attacks by humans or other lions. Careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey.

Ticks commonly infest the ears, neck and groin regions of lions. Lions sought unsuccessfully to evade the biting flies by climbing trees or crawling into hyena burrows; many perished or migrated and the local population dropped from 70 to 15 individuals.

During the outbreak, several lions died from pneumonia and encephalitis. The virus occurs with high-to-endemic frequency in several wild lion populations but is mostly absent from Asiatic and Namibian lions.

The most common peaceful, tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking , [] which have been compared with grooming in primates.

Males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females. The head and neck are the most common parts of the body licked; this behaviour may have arisen out of utility because lions cannot lick these areas themselves.

Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures. The repertoire of vocalisations is also large; rather than discrete signals, variations in intensity and pitch appear to be central to communication.

Most lion vocalisations are variations of growling, snarling, miaowing and roaring. Other sounds produced include purring, puffing, bleating and humming.

The lion prefers grassy plains and savannahs, scrub bordering rivers and open woodlands with bushes. It is absent from rainforest and rarely enters closed forest.

In Africa, the range of the lion originally spanned most of the central rainforest zone and the Sahara desert. In Eurasia , the lion once ranged from Greece to India; Herodotus reported that lions had been common in Greece in BC; they attacked the baggage camels of the Persian king Xerxes on his march through the country.

Aristotle considered them rare by BC, and by AD, they had been extirpated. Between the late 19th and late 20th centuries, it became extinct in Southwest Asia.

By the late 19th century, the lion had been extirpated in most of northern India and Turkey. There are no subsequent reliable reports from Iran.

Its habitat is a mixture of dry savannah forest and very dry, deciduous scrub forest. Habitat loss and conflicts with humans are considered to be the most significant threats to the species.

When favourable habitat is inundated in the wet season, lions expand home ranges and travel greater distances, and cub mortality is high.

In , a population of up to lions that was previously thought to have been extirpated was filmed in the Alatash National Park , Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border.

The West African lion population is isolated from the one in Central Africa, with little or no exchange of breeding individuals. In , it was estimated that this population consists of about animals, including fewer than mature individuals.

They persist in three protected areas in the region, mostly in one population in the W A P protected area complex, shared by Benin , Burkina Faso and Niger.

This population is listed as Critically Endangered. These were the first sightings of lions in the country in 39 years. Five hair samples from this lion were collected and compared with samples from museum specimens that had been shot in the area in By , no lions were recorded in the protected area so the population is considered locally extinct.

The population has risen from approximately lions in to about in The presence of numerous human habitations close to the National Park results in conflict between lions, local people and their livestock.

Lions are included in the Species Survival Plan , a coordinated attempt by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to increase its chances of survival.

The plan was started in for the Asiatic lion, but was suspended when it was found that most Asiatic lions in North American zoos were not genetically pure , having been hybridised with African lions.

The African lion plan started in , and focused on the South African population, although there are difficulties in assessing the genetic diversity of captive lions because most individuals are of unknown origin, making the maintenance of genetic diversity a problem.

The former popularity of the Barbary lion as a zoo animal means captive lions are likely descended from Barbary lion stock.

WildLink International in collaboration with Oxford University launched an ambitious International Barbary Lion Project with the aim of identifying and breeding Barbary lions in captivity for eventual reintroduction into a national park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century; members of this group are invariably large vertebrates and include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, large primates and other big cats; zoos sought to gather as many of these species as possible.

They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes. His two sisters, born in , were still alive in August At the ancient Egyptian cities of Taremu and Per-Bast were temples dedicated to the lion goddesses of Egypt, Sekhmet and Bast , and at Taremu there was a temple dedicated to the son of the deity Maahes the lion prince, where lions were kept and allowed to roam within the temple.

The Greeks called the city Leontopolis "City of Lions" and documented that practice. Lions were kept and bred by Assyrian kings as early as BC, [] and Alexander the Great was said to have been presented with tame lions by the Malhi of northern India.

Roman notables including Sulla , Pompey and Julius Caesar often ordered the mass slaughter of hundreds of lions at a time. Marco Polo reported that Kublai Khan kept lions.

The first European "zoos" spread among noble and royal families in the 13th century, and until the 17th century were called seraglios ; at that time they came to be called menageries , an extension of the cabinet of curiosities.

They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. By extension, menageries and seraglios served as demonstrations of the dominance of humanity over nature; the defeat of such natural "lords" by a cow in astonished spectators and the flight of an elephant before a rhinoceros drew jeers.

The frequency of such fights slowly declined in the 17th century with the spread of menageries and their appropriation by commoners.

The tradition of keeping big cats as pets lasted into the 19th century, at which time it was seen as highly eccentric.

The presence of lions at the Tower of London was intermittent, being restocked when a monarch or his consort, such as Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI , either sought or were given animals.

Records indicate animals in the Tower of London were kept in poor conditions in the 17th century, in contrast to more open conditions in Florence at the time.

The trade in wild animals flourished alongside improved colonial trade of the 19th century; lions were considered fairly common and inexpensive.

Although they would barter higher than tigers, they were less costly than larger or more difficult-to-transport animals such as the giraffe and hippopotamus, and much less than giant pandas.

Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the s.

Lion hunting has occurred since ancient times and was often a royal pastime. The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule.

The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears.

Lions were also hunted during the Mughal Empire , where Emperor Jahangir is said to have excelled at it. Royal hunting of lions was intended to demonstrate the power of the king over nature.

The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage. Historically, lions were hunted by individuals, however, due to reduced lion populations, elders discourage solo lion hunts.

This resulted in big cats being always suspected of being man-eaters, representing "both the fear of nature and the satisfaction of having overcome it".

Lion-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of lions in combat with other animals, usually dogs. Records of it exist in ancient times through until the seventeenth century.

It was finally banned in Vienna by and England in The term is also often used for the taming and display of other big cats such as tigers, leopards and cougars.

The practice began in the early 19th century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh , who both toured widely and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.

Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore "the lions of Mysore" , an idea that Amburgh quickly borrowed. These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema.

In demonstrating the superiority of human over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.

One well-publicised case is the Tsavo maneaters ; in , 28 officially recorded railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenya.

The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favoured by all researchers; an analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.

The authors note the relationship is well-attested among other pantherines and primates in the fossil record. American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behaviour in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from to At least villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period — a number far exceeding the Tsavo attacks.

While the expansion of villages into bush country is one concern, the authors argue conservation policy must mitigate the danger because in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.

Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. According to Robert R.

Frump, Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park, South Africa, at night are attacked and eaten by lions; park officials have said man-eating is a problem there.

Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night. For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm.

Packer estimates between and Tanzanians are killed each year by wild animals and that lions are thought to kill at least 70 of these. According to Packer between and , lions attacked people in Tanzania and killed Packer and Ikanda are among the few conservationists who believe western conservation efforts must take account of these matters because of ethical concerns about human life and the long-term success of conservation efforts and lion preservation.

A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, said it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess beneath a cracked molar and wrote, "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing".

The "All-Africa" record of man-eating generally is considered to be a collection of incidents between the early s and the late s in modern-day Tanzania inflicted by a pride known as the "Njombe lions".

Game warden and hunter George Rushby eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1, to 2, people in Njombe district.

Sometimes, Asiatic lions may become man-eaters. The area of the Gir sanctuary is now insufficient to sustain their large number [] and lions have moved outside it, making them a potential threat to people in and around the park.

The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. It has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature.

The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness. Depictions of lions are known from the Upper Paleolithic period.

Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15, to 17, years old.

The ancient Egyptians portrayed several of their war deities as lionesses, which they revered as fierce hunters. Egyptian deities associated with lions include: The lion was also believed to act as a guide to the underworld, through which the sun was believed to pass each night.

The presence of lion-footed tombs found in Egypt and images of mummies carried on the backs of lions suggests this close association of the lions with the underworld.

In Sub-Saharan Africa , cultural views of the lion have varied by region. In some cultures, the lion symbolises power and royalty, and some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname.

In parts of West Africa, to be compared with a lion was considered to be a great compliment. In parts of West and East Africa, the lion is associated with healing and is regarded as the link between seers and the supernatural.

In other East African traditions, the lion is the symbol of laziness. The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship.

The theme of the royal lion hunt, a common motif in the early iconography in West Asia, symbolized death and resurrection; the continuation of life was ensured by the killing of a god-like animal.

In the Book of Judges , Samson kills a lion as he travels to visit a Philistine woman. The power and ferocity of the lion is invoked when describing the anger of God Amos 3: The book of Isaiah uses the imagery of a lion laying with a calf and child, and eating straw to portray the harmony of creation Isa In the Puranic texts of Hinduism , Narasimha "man-lion" a half-lion, half-man incarnation or avatar of Vishnu , is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu ; [] Vishnu takes the form of half-man, half-lion] creature in Narasimha, where he has a human torso and lower body, and a lion-like face and claws.

It was originally used only by Rajputs , a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in , the Sikhs also adopted the name "Singh" due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh.

Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by over 20 million Sikhs worldwide. The Asiatic lion is found as an emblem on numerous flags and coats of arms across Asia, including on the National Emblem of India.

The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art ; it was first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn period fifth or sixth century BC and became more popular during the Han Dynasty BC — AD when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection.

Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty after the sixth century AD, lions were usually depicted wingless with shorter, thicker bodies and curly manes.

Lion-headed figures and amulets were excavated in tombs in the Greek islands of Crete , Euboea , Rhodes , Paros and Chios.

They are associated with the Egyptian deity Sekhmet and date to the early Iron Age between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.

Similarly the wearing of lion skin such as the lion skin worn by Herackles also symbolizes victory over death. Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms , either as a device on shields or as supporters , but the lioness is used much less frequently.

Such descriptions specify whether lions or other creatures are "rampant" rearing or "passant" crouching. The lion is used as a symbol of sporting teams, from national association football teams such as England , Scotland and Singapore to famous clubs such as the Detroit Lions [] of the NFL, Chelsea [] and Aston Villa , a team of the English Premier League , [] and by the Premiership itself, Eintracht Braunschweig of the Bundesliga , and many smaller clubs around the world.

Lions continue to appear in modern literature as characters including the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from The Chronicles of Narnia series written by C.

Lewis , [] and the comedic Cowardly Lion in L. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lion disambiguation. A species of large cat in the subfamily Pantherinae.

Linnaeus , [3]. Panthera hybrid , Liger , and Tigon. A pride of lion headed by one male at Masai Mara , Kenya. Lioness in a burst of speed while hunting in the Serengeti.

Four lionesses catching a cape buffalo in the Serengeti. Lion hunting , Lion-baiting , and Lion taming. Cultural depictions of lions. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Tomus I decima, reformata ed. Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Verlag der Kakao-Compagnie Theodor Reichardt. A Fossil Record from ". Pleistocene Mammals of Europe.

Journal of the Geological Society of India. Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Archived from the original PDF on 21 January

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