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Individual glyph blocks may be composed of a number of elements. These consist of the main sign, and any affixes. Main signs represent the major element of the block, and may be a noun , verb , adverb , adjective , or phonetic sign.
Some main signs are abstract, some are pictures of the object they represent, and others are "head variants", personifications of the word they represent.
Affixes are smaller rectangular elements, usually attached to a main sign, although a block may be composed entirely of affixes.
Affixes may represent a wide variety of speech elements, including nouns, verbs, verbal suffixes, prepositions, pronouns, and more. Small sections of a main sign could be used to represent the whole main sign, and Maya scribes were highly inventive in their usage and adaptation of glyph elements.
Although the archaeological record does not provide examples of brushes or pens, analysis of ink strokes on the Postclassic codices suggests that it was applied with a brush with a tip fashioned from pliable hair.
Commoners were illiterate; scribes were drawn from the elite. It is not known if all members of the aristocracy could read and write, although at least some women could, since there are representations of female scribes in Maya art.
Although not much is known about Maya scribes, some did sign their work, both on ceramics and on stone sculpture. Usually, only a single scribe signed a ceramic vessel, but multiple sculptors are known to have recorded their names on stone sculpture; eight sculptors signed one stela at Piedras Negras.
However, most works remained unsigned by their artists. In common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya used a base 20 vigesimal system.
This later developed into a numeral that was used to perform calculation,  and was used in hieroglyphic texts for more than a thousand years, until its use was extinguished by the Spanish.
The basic number system consists of a dot to represent one, and a bar to represent five. In this way, the lowest symbol would represent units, the next symbol up would represent multiples of twenty, and the symbol above that would represent multiples of , and so on.
For example, the number would be written with four dots on the lowest level, four dots on the next level up, and two dots on the next level after that, to give 4x1, plus 4x20, plus 2x Using this system, the Maya were able to record huge numbers.
The Maya calendrical system, in common with other Mesoamerican calendars, had its origins in the Preclassic period. However, it was the Maya that developed the calendar to its maximum sophistication, recording lunar and solar cycles, eclipses and movements of planets with great accuracy.
In some cases, the Maya calculations were more accurate than equivalent calculations in the Old World ; for example, the Maya solar year was calculated to greater accuracy than the Julian year.
The Maya calendar was intrinsically tied to Maya ritual, and it was central to Maya religious practices. The next unit, instead of being multiplied by 20, as called for by the vigesimal system, was multiplied by 18 in order to provide a rough approximation of the solar year hence producing days.
This day year was called a tun. Each succeeding level of multiplication followed the vigesimal system.
No astronomical basis for this count has been proved, and it may be that the day count is based on the human gestation period. The day cycle repeated a series of day-names, with a number from 1 to 13 prefixed to indicated where in the cycle a particular day occurred.
The day haab was produced by a cycle of eighteen named day winal s, completed by the addition of a 5-day period called the wayeb. Such a day name could only recur once every 52 years, and this period is referred to by Mayanists as the Calendar Round.
In most Mesoamerican cultures, the Calendar Round was the largest unit for measuring time. As with any non-repeating calendar, the Maya measured time from a fixed start point.
This was believed by the Maya to be the day of the creation of the world in its current form. Although the Calendar Round is still in use today,  the Maya started using an abbreviated Short Count during the Late Classic period.
The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel  contains the only colonial reference to classic long-count dates. This equates the Long Count date The famous astrologer John Dee used an Aztec obsidian mirror to see into the future.
We may look down our noses at his ideas, but one may be sure that in outlook he was far closer to a Maya priest astronomer than is an astronomer of our century.
The Maya made meticulous observations of celestial bodies, patiently recording astronomical data on the movements of the sun, moon, Venus, and the stars.
This information was used for divination , so Maya astronomy was essentially for astrological purposes. Maya astronomy did not serve to study the universe for scientific reasons, nor was it used to measure the seasons in order to calculate crop planting.
It was rather used by the priesthood to comprehend past cycles of time, and project them into the future to produce prophecy.
The priesthood refined observations and recorded eclipses of the sun and moon, and movements of Venus and the stars; these were measured against dated events in the past, on the assumption that similar events would occur in the future when the same astronomical conditions prevailed.
The Maya measured the day Venus cycle with an error of just two hours. Five cycles of Venus equated to eight day haab calendrical cycles, and this period was recorded in the codices.
The Maya also followed the movements of Jupiter , Mars and Mercury. Solar and lunar eclipses were considered to be especially dangerous events that could bring catastrophe upon the world.
Eclipses were interpreted as the sun or moon being bitten, and lunar tables were recorded in order that the Maya might be able to predict them, and perform the appropriate ceremonies to ward off disaster.
In common with the rest of Mesoamerica, the Maya believed in a supernatural realm inhabited by an array of powerful deities who needed to be placated with ceremonial offerings and ritual practices.
Visions for the chilan were likely facilitated by consumption of water lilies , which are hallucinogenic in high doses.
The Maya viewed the cosmos as highly structured. There were thirteen levels in the heavens and nine in the underworld, with the mortal world in between.
Each level had four cardinal directions associated with a different colour; north was white, east was red, south was yellow, and west was black.
Major deities had aspects associated with these directions and colours. Maya households interred their dead underneath the floors, with offerings appropriate to the social status of the family.
There the dead could act as protective ancestors. Maya lineages were patrilineal, so the worship of a prominent male ancestor would be emphasized, often with a household shrine.
As Maya society developed, and the elite became more powerful, Maya royalty developed their household shrines into the great pyramids that held the tombs of their ancestors.
Belief in supernatural forces pervaded Maya life and influenced every aspect of it, from the simplest day-to-day activities such as food preparation, to trade, politics, and elite activities.
Maya deities governed all aspects of the world, both visible and invisible. The priests performed public ceremonies that incorporated feasting, bloodletting, incense burning, music , ritual dance, and, on certain occasions, human sacrifice.
During the Classic period, the Maya ruler was the high priest, and the direct conduit between mortals and the gods.
It is highly likely that, among commoners, shamanism continued in parallel to state religion. By the Postclassic, religious emphasis had changed; there was an increase in worship of the images of deities, and more frequent recourse to human sacrifice.
Archaeologists painstakingly reconstruct these ritual practices and beliefs using several techniques. One important, though incomplete, resource is physical evidence, such as dedicatory caches and other ritual deposits, shrines, and burials with their associated funerary offerings.
Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities, and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering.
By extension, the sacrifice of a human life was the ultimate offering of blood to the gods, and the most important Maya rituals culminated in human sacrifice.
Generally only high status prisoners of war were sacrificed, with lower status captives being used for labour. Important rituals such as the dedication of major building projects or the enthronement of a new ruler required a human offering.
The sacrifice of an enemy king was the most prized, and such a sacrifice involved decapitation of the captive ruler in a ritual reenactment of the decapitation of the Maya maize god by the death gods.
During the Postclassic period, the most common form of human sacrifice was heart extraction, influenced by the rites of the Aztecs in the Valley of Mexico;  this usually took place in the courtyard of a temple, or upon the summit of the pyramid.
The Maya world was populated by a great variety of deities, supernatural entities and sacred forces. The Maya had such a broad interpretation of the sacred that identifying distinct deities with specific functions is inaccurate.
The priestly interpretation of astronomical records and books was therefore crucial, since the priest would understand which deity required ritual propitiation, when the correct ceremonies should be performed, and what would be an appropriate offering.
Each deity had four manifestations, associated with the cardinal directions, each identified with a different colour.
Itzamna also had a night sun aspect, the Night Jaguar , representing the sun in its journey through the underworld.
As well as their four main aspects, the Bakabs had dozens of other aspects that are not well understood. In common with other Mesoamerican cultures, the Maya worshipped feathered serpent deities.
The ancient Maya had diverse and sophisticated methods of food production. It was believed that shifting cultivation swidden agriculture provided most of their food,  but it is now thought that permanent raised fields , terracing , intensive gardening, forest gardens, and managed fallows were also crucial to supporting the large populations of the Classic period in some areas.
The basic staples of the Maya diet were maize, beans, and squashes. These were supplemented with a wide variety of other plants either cultivated in gardens or gathered in the forest.
Cotton seeds were in the process of being ground, perhaps to produce cooking oil. In addition to basic foodstuffs, the Maya also cultivated prestige crops such as cotton, cacao and vanilla.
Cacao was especially prized by the elite, who consumed chocolate beverages. All of these were used as food animals; dogs were additionally used for hunting.
It is possible that deer were also penned and fattened. There are hundreds of Maya sites spread across five countries: Other important, but difficult to reach, sites include Calakmul and El Mirador.
There are a great many museums across the world with Maya artefacts in their collections. The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies lists over museums in its Maya Museum database,  and the European Association of Mayanists lists just under 50 museums in Europe alone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. El Castillo , at Chichen Itza. Detail of Lintel 26 from Yaxchilan. History of the Maya civilization.
Kaminaljuyu , in the highlands, and El Mirador , in the lowlands, were both important cities in the Late Preclassic.
Women in Maya society. Jaina Island figurine representing a Classic period warrior. Obsidian spearheads with a lithic core , Takalik Abaj.
Trade in Maya civilization. Early Classic wooden figurine, it may once have supported a mirror . Stucco mask adorning the Early Classic substructure of Tikal Temple 33 .
Late Classic painted mural at Bonampak. Painted ceramic vessel from Sacul. Ceramic figurine from Jaina Island , AD — Postclassic ballcourt at Zaculeu , in the Guatemalan Highlands.
The Great Ballcourt of Chichen Itza. Coe, The Maya , London: Thames and Hudson, 6th ed. The first glyph writes the word logographicaly with the jaguar head standing for the entire word.
Illustration of a Maya scribe on a Classic period vessel. Kimbell Art Museum , Fort Worth. Maya numerals on a page of the Postclassic Dresden Codex.
Maya calendar and Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Thompson , Maya Astronomy: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society , .
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Presumably the same pattern obtains for the rest of the higher places. This staggered resetting of the higher-order cycles, so jarringly unexpected from a contemporary, Western perspective, suggests an attitude towards time more numerological than mathematical.
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The Maya Ballgame ] hardback in Spanish. Wright; Timothy Beach December Ministerio de Cultura y Deportes. The Rise and Fall of a Forest Civilization.
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She can accommodate 16 guests and 24 crew. The yacht has a cruise speed of 20 knots with a top speed of 22 knots.
Not much is known about her interior and there are no interior photos available. In May she was spotted in the Aegean Sea, near Rhodes.
The beautiful pictures on this page are made by Ship Dreams. The yacht Mayan Queen is not available for charter. In the summer of a 20 year old Instagram model named Sinead McNamara was found in a critical condition on board the Mexican billionaire yacht Mayan Queen.
She was working as a crew member on board. Unfortunately she died on her way to the hospital. Authorities have launched an investigation on the cause of her death.
Who is Alberto Bailleres? He is owner of one the largest mining companies in the world. Penoles produces 25, kg of gold and 2,5 million kg of silver annually.
Bailleres also owns a chain of department stores: El Palacio de Hierro. EL Palacio de Hierro currently operates 13 stores.
That makes him the 3rd richest person in Mexico. Alberto is President of the Board of Trustees. Alberto had a brother who died in a car accident.
Bailleres is an active philanthropist donating to education and health. Bailleres lives in a large house in Mexico City. Please mention and link to this page, when using this information.
The helicopter landing platform shows a B for Bailleres instead of the normal H. Alberto Bailleres is the owner of the Mexico based Grupo Bal.
Mexican billionaire yacht Mayan Queen photo by A Christy. Yacht Engines Marine Engines We created a comparison of yacht marine diesel engine specifications.
Disclaimer The details about yacht ownership as stated on this site and in our Yacht Owners Register are mostly based on rumors.