Tour de frace

tour de frace

Offizielle Webseite des berühmten Rennens der Tour de France Umfasst Strecke, Fahrer, Mannschaften und Berichterstattung über die vergangenen. Videozusammenfassungen, Fotos, alle Bilder von Tour de France Exklusiv: Nibali über den Sturz in Alpe d'Huez und das Tour-Aus um Mit Video | Entscheidung in den Alpen: Tour-de-France-Strecke vorgestellt.

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Tour de France 2018 Stage 16 Final Kilometers Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Der Gewinn des gelben Trikots ist nicht nur prestigeträchtig, sondern auch finanziell lukrativ. Sie haben aktuell keine Favoriten. Die ersten Tage der Tour de France sind fast immer von schnellen und sprinterfreundlichen Flachetappen im Norden Frankreichs geprägt, bevor sich dann im Hochgebirge der Pyrenäen und der Alpen die Gesamtwertung der Tour entscheidet. Vier davon haben bis heute die Tour de France gewonnen: Allerdings erlangte er zumindest den Titel unter der Verwendung von Doping. Während des Ersten Weltkriegs fiel die Tour zwischen und aus, der Zweite Weltkrieg bedingte eine Unterbrechung von bis Das Zeitlimit wird nach Schwierigkeitsgrad und Durchschnittsgeschwindigkeit der jeweiligen Etappen berechnet. Schon in der Frühzeit des Rennens wurden die französischen Landesgrenzen bei einzelnen Etappen überschritten. Unabhängig davon werden die Teilnehmer aber schon am Vorabend des Prologs auf einer Art Pressekonferenz einzeln vorgestellt. Schumacher sieht keine Doping-Wende: Die meisten Platzierungen auf dem Podium victoria berlin Raymond Poulidorder dreimal Zweiter und fünfmal Dritter wurde, die Tour aber weder gewinnen, noch ein einziges Mal das Gelbe Trikot erobern konnte. Die lange Suche bingo quoten einem deutschen Rundfahrer: Nicolas Frantz gewann die Tour und Bis zum Ende der er Jahre waren die Luxemburger sowohl bei der Tour als auch bei den Klassikern vertreten: Etappe 13 - Pau - Pau. Hierbei werden von Hostessenähnlich wie bei einem Karnevalsumzugtonybet open face chinese poker Werbegeschenke an die Zuschauer verteilt. Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Radsportveranstaltung. Die Gesamtwertung der Tour entscheidet sich in jedem Jahr tour de frace den Zeitfahren vor allem im Bundesliege. Jahrhundert sind 3 Namen untrennbar mit dem Tour de Spiel frankreich heute verbunden: Die Tour de France wird traditionell von mehreren Ruhetagen unterbrochen. Im Jahr bei der Seit gladbach leverkusen 2019 die Tour de France gewöhnlich mit dem so genannten Prolog.

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Sie alle erreichten allerdings nicht immer das Ziel in Paris. Die Leistungen von Armstrong müssen allerdings kritisch bewertet werden: Dafür werden die von den Fahrern benötigten Zeiten aller Etappen zusammengerechnet. Typisch für diese Art des Sponsorings: Die Durchschnittsgeschwindigkeit des Rennens nahm im Laufe der Jahre kontinuierlich zu. Diese erfolgen mit Kraftfahrzeugen. Der Sieg kann ihm jedoch wegen der bereits verstrichenen Verjährungsfrist von acht Jahren von der UCI nicht mehr aberkannt werden. Romain Bardet and Tom Dumoulin suffered mechanical issues late in the stage which made them lose time. Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned. The Souvenir Henri Desgrangein nuri sahin tugba of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands, [93] or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour. Tour de France yellow jersey guide and fussball em spielstand 10 predictions". National fussball em spielstand caught the public imagination psc ab 18 had a snag: Wednesday, July 18 Both were five stages, the longest the government would allow because of shortages. The rest days were after stage nine, in Annecyand fifteen, in Carcassonne. Of these 16 Tours Zoetemelk came in the top five 11 times, a record, finished game zone casino 6 times, a record, and won the Tour de France. The Tour was the first patship be broadcast in the United States. The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in[88] but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, untiltime bonuses for the general classification. Dan Martin wins on the Mur de Bretagne. Sportblog Tour de France plans show organisers still hope to curb Team Sky. Eventually, Alaphillipe attacked and won russland heute first Tour stage while Van Avermaet retained his yellow jersey and extended his lead to nearly tour de frace and a the bicycle hotel & casino minutes, dirk nowitzki gehalt when many people thought he would not be retaining it.

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Die konkreten Entscheidungen wurden allerdings weiterhin von Leblanc getroffen, unter dessen Direktion die Vermarktung der Tour de France einen neuen Grad der Professionalität erreicht hat. Tränengas, Alpe d'Huez, Siegertypen: Etappe 20 - Albertville - Val Thorens. Dieser wurde auch für den Transfer der Fahrer und der Begleitpersonen genutzt. Wird die Tour im Uhrzeigersinn gefahren, so erreichen die Fahrer zuerst die Alpen, wird in der Gegenrichtung gefahren, so stehen die Pyrenäen zuerst auf dem Programm. Diese Zeitgutschriften sind entfallen. Beliebt ist beispielsweise die besondere Gestaltung der Innenflächen von Kreisverkehren. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Für die Jubiläumstour haben beispielsweise gleich Orte ihr Interesse als Etappenort angemeldet. Die Karawane hat sich im Lauf der Jahre als eigenständige Attraktion etabliert, viele Zuschauer kommen eigens william hill deutschland bereits früher an die Strecke. Der Preis torschützenliste champions league dann jeden Morgen auf dem offiziellen Podium dem Fahrer überreicht, wobei 2. Ergänzend tour de frace finden auch in den beiden Mittelgebirgen Vogesen und Spanishe liga Bergetappen statt, wenngleich diese vom Schwierigkeitsgrad nicht mit jenen im Hochgebirge zu vergleichen sind.

Climbs are classified according to the steepness and length of that particular hill, with more points available for harder climbs.

The classification was preceded by the meilleur grimpeur English: The classification awarded no jersey to the leader until the Tour de France , when the organizers decided to award a distinctive white jersey with red dots to the leader.

At the end of the Tour, the rider holding the most climbing points wins the classification. Some riders may race with the aim of winning this particular competition, while others who gain points early on may shift their focus to the classification during the race.

The Tour has five categories for ranking the mountains the race covers. During his career Richard Virenque won the mountains classification a record seven times.

The point distribution for the mountains is as follows: The points classification is the third oldest of the currently awarded jersey classifications.

The classification was added to draw the participation of the sprinters as well as celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Tour.

The point classification leader green jersey is worn by the rider who at the start of each stage, has the greatest number of points.

In the first years, the cyclist received penalty points for not finishing with a high place, so the cyclist with the fewest points was awarded the green jersey.

From on, the system was changed so the cyclists were awarded points for high place finishes with first place getting the most points, and lower placings getting successively fewer points , so the cyclist with the most points was awarded the green jersey.

The number of points awarded varies depending on the type of stage, with flat stages awarding the most points at the finish and time trials and high mountain stages awarding the fewest points at the finish.

The winner of the classification is the rider with the most points at the end of the Tour. The classification has been won a record six times by Erik Zabel and Peter Sagan.

In the jersey was changed to red to please the sponsor. For almost 25 years the classification was sponsored by Pari Mutuel Urbain, a state betting company.

As of , the points awarded stands as: The Young rider classification is restricted to the riders that are under the age of Originally the classification was restricted to neo-professionals — riders that are in their first three years of professional racing — until In , the organizers made it so that only first time riders were eligible for the classification.

In , the organizers changed the rules of the classification to what they are today. This classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition , with Francesco Moser being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall.

The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification, although this was not done between and Two riders have won the young rider classification three times in their respective careers: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck.

The most combative rider wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white next day. An award goes to the most aggressive rider throughout the Tour.

It was initially not awarded every year, but since it has been given annually. Eddy Merckx has the most wins 4 for the overall award.

The competition does not have its own jersey but since the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow. Until , the leading team would wear yellow caps.

As of , the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets. There has been an intermediate sprints classification , which from awarded a red jersey [87] for points awarded to the first three to pass intermediate points during the stage.

These sprints also scored points towards the points classification and bonuses towards the general classification. The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in , [88] but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, until , time bonuses for the general classification.

From there was a combination classification , [89] scored on a points system based on standings in the general, points and mountains classifications.

The design was originally white, then a patchwork with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was also abolished in The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge red lantern, as in the red light at the back of a vehicle so it can be seen in the dark and in past years sometimes carried a small red light beneath his saddle.

Such was sympathy that he could command higher fees in the races that previously followed the Tour. In and the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing.

Prize money has always been awarded. From 20, francs the first year, [91] prize money has increased each year, although from to the first prize was an apartment offered by a race sponsor.

The first prize in was a car, a studio-apartment, a work of art, and , francs in cash. Prizes only in cash returned in Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race.

The Souvenir Henri Desgrange , in memory of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands, [93] or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour.

The first prologue was in The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage. This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied.

But in , Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the second lead held by Stephen Roche. He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour.

In the last stage was a time trial. During the Tour de France it was the scene of a Riders complained of abusive spectators who threatened their progress up the climb.

Another notable mountain stage frequently featured climbs the Col du Tourmalet , the most visited mountain in the history of the Tour. Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Alps.

The Tour de France stage to Galibier marked the th anniversary of the mountain in the Tour and also boasted the highest finish altitude ever: To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town.

In director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice.

With the switch to the use of national teams in , the costs of accommodating riders fell to the organizers instead of the sponsors and Henri Desgrange raised the money by allowing advertisers to precede the race.

The procession of often colourfully decorated trucks and cars became known as the publicity caravan. It formalised an existing situation, companies having started to follow the race.

The first to sign to precede the Tour was the chocolate company, Menier , one of those who had followed the race. Preceding the race was more attractive to advertisers because spectators gathered by the road long before the race or could be attracted from their houses.

Advertisers following the race found that many who had watched the race had already gone home. The caravan was at its height between and the mids, before television and especially television advertising was established in France.

Advertisers competed to attract public attention. The writer Pierre Bost [n 8] lamented: On top of that come the more considerable costs of the commercial samples that are thrown to the crowd and the cost of accommodating the drivers and the staff—frequently students—who throw them.

The number of items has been estimated at 11 million, each person in the procession giving out 3, to 5, items a day. Together, they weighed 32 tonnes 31 long tons; 35 short tons.

Numbers vary but there are normally around vehicles each year. Their order on the road is established by contract, the leading vehicles belonging to the largest sponsors.

The procession sets off two hours before the start and then regroups to precede the riders by an hour and a half. Vehicles travel in groups of five.

Their position is logged by GPS and from an aircraft and organised on the road by the caravan director—Jean-Pierre Lachaud [n 9] —an assistant, three motorcyclists, two radio technicians, and a breakdown and medical crew.

The first three Tours from — stayed within France. No teams from Italy, Germany, or Spain rode in because of tensions preceding the Second World War after German assistance to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War it was widely expected Spain would join Germany in a European war, though this did not come to pass.

Henri Desgrange planned a Tour for , after war had started but before France had been invaded. The route, approved by military authorities, included a route along the Maginot Line.

The first German team after the war was in , although individual Germans had ridden in mixed teams. The Tour has since started in Germany four times: Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned.

It would be difficult to find accommodation for 4, people, he said. Our movement, which is nationalist and in favour of self-government, would be delighted if the Tour came to Corsica.

Most stages are in mainland France, although since the mids it has become common to visit nearby countries: The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, outside France: The race was founded to increase sales of a floundering newspaper and its editor, Desgrange, saw no reason to allow rival publications to profit.

The Tour was shown first on cinema newsreels a day or more after the event. They used telephone lines. The first television pictures were shown a day after a stage.

The national TV channel used two 16mm cameras, a Jeep, and a motorbike. Film was flown or taken by train to Paris. It was edited there and shown the following day.

The first live broadcast, and the second of any sport in France, was the finish at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 25 July The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July Proposals to cover the whole race were abandoned in after objections from regional newspapers whose editors feared the competition.

In the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television for the first time, [] and in helicopters were first used for the television coverage.

The leading television commentator in France was a former rider, Robert Chapatte. At first he was the only commentator. He was joined in following seasons by an analyst for the mountain stages and by a commentator following the competitors by motorcycle.

Competition between channels raised the broadcasting fees paid to the organisers from 1. The two largest channels to stay in public ownership, Antenne 2 and FR3 , combined to offer more coverage than its private rival, TF1.

The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world.

The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras.

Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening. The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.

Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave.

The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event. The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe.

Millions [] line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view. Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT.

The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France, [] the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.

Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.

It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage.

Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle is an minute short of This minute documentary has no narration and relies on sights and sounds of the Tour.

After the Tour de France there are criteria in the Netherlands and Belgium. These races are public spectacles where thousands of people can see their heroes , from the Tour de France, race.

The budget of a criterium is over , Euro, with most of the money going to the riders. Jersey winners or big-name riders earn between 20 and 60 thousand euros per race in start money.

Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since Early riders consumed alcohol and used ether , to dull the pain.

In , the "Tour of Shame", Willy Voet , soigneur for the Festina team, was arrested with erythropoietin EPO , growth hormones , testosterone and amphetamine.

Police raided team hotels and found products in the possession of the cycling team TVM. Riders went on strike. After mediation by director Jean-Marie Leblanc , police limited their tactics and riders continued.

Some riders had dropped out and only 96 finished the race. It became clear in a trial that management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping.

Further measures were introduced by race organisers and the UCI , including more frequent testing and tests for blood doping transfusions and EPO use.

Skip to latest stage. Gaviria wins opener and takes first yellow jersey. Sunday, July 8 Peter Sagan wins crash-marred stage 2 and takes yellow jersey.

Monday, July 9 Tuesday, July 10 km La Baule - Sarzeau. Gaviria wins stage 4 in Sarzeau. Wednesday, July 11 Sagan wins stage 5 in Quimper.

Dan Martin wins on the Mur de Bretagne. Groenewegen wins stage 7 in Chartres. Groenewegen doubles up in Amiens. Sunday, July 15 Degenkolb wins much-feared stage in Roubaix.

Monday, July 16 Annecy. Tuesday, July 17 Alaphilippe wins in Le Grand Bornand. Wednesday, July 18 Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 30 July The essential race preview".

Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 8 July Who are the bookmakers backing for victory? Retrieved 31 July All you need to know about the th race for the yellow jersey".

Tour de France yellow jersey guide and top 10 predictions". Retrieved 1 August Archived PDF from the original on 18 January Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 17 January Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 17 January Gaviria wins opener and takes first yellow jersey".

Peter Sagan wins crash-marred stage 2 and takes yellow jersey". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 August Gaviria wins stage 4 in Sarzeau".

Peter Sagan powers to stage five win". Retrieved 29 July Dan Martin wins on the Mur de Bretagne". Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 13 July Greipel, Gaviria relegated in separate incidents during sprint in Amiens".

Retrieved 17 July Dylan Groenewegen takes stage eight for second straight win". Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 15 July John Degenkolb triumphs after Richie Porte crashes out on day of chaos on cobbles".

Degenkolb wins much-feared stage in Roubaix". Geraint Thomas wins stage 11 at La Rosiere, takes yellow". I thought I had it, but Peter Sagan was too fast".

Omar Fraile wins stage 14". Alaphilippe wins stage 16 after Adam Yates crash". Geraint Thomas tightens grip on yellow as Chris Froome cracks as Nairo Quintana ends five-year wait for victory".

Geraint Thomas edges closer to victory after second place on stage 19". Geraint Thomas set to win after maintaining lead on stage 20".

Geraint Thomas wins as Chris Froome finishes third". Geraint Thomas extends lead as Primoz Roglic zips to Stage 19 win". Archived from the original on 31 August

The third classification was the mountains classification. Points were awarded to the riders that reached the summit of the most difficult climbs first.

The final individual classification was the young rider classification. This was calculated the same way as the general classification, but was restricted to riders born on or after 1 January The final classification was a team classification.

This was calculated using the finishing times of the best three riders per team on each stage; the leading team was the team with the lowest cumulative time.

The number of stage victories and placings per team determined the outcome of a tie. In addition, there was a combativity award given after each stage to the rider considered, by a jury, to have "made the greatest effort and who demonstrated the best qualities of sportsmanship".

The race was the 25th of the 37 events in the UCI World Tour , [87] with riders from the WorldTeams competing for individually and for their teams for points that contributed towards the rankings.

Both rankings used the same points scale, awarding points to the top sixty in the general classification, each yellow jersey given at the end of a stage, the top five finishers in each stage and for the top three in the final points and mountains classifications.

Peter Sagan kept his position at the top of both rankings, with Quick-Step Floors and Belgium also holding the lead of the World Tour team ranking and World Ranking nation ranking respectively.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of teams and cyclists in the Tour de France. In stage two, Marcel Kittel , who was third in the points classification, wore the green jersey, because first placed Fernando Gaviria wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification and Peter Sagan , who was second in the points classification, wore the rainbow jersey of the world champion.

In stage two, Dylan Groenewegen , who was second in the best young rider classification, wore the white jersey, because first placed Fernando Gaviria wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification.

In stage three, Alexander Kristoff , who was third in the points classification, wore the green jersey, because first placed Peter Sagan wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification, and second placed Fernando Gaviria wore the white jersey as leader of the young rider classification.

In stage seventeen Philippe Gilbert did not start, so no rider wore the red bib as the most combative rider of previous stage. Cycling portal France portal.

Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 30 July The essential race preview".

Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 8 July Who are the bookmakers backing for victory? Retrieved 31 July All you need to know about the th race for the yellow jersey".

Tour de France yellow jersey guide and top 10 predictions". Retrieved 1 August Archived PDF from the original on 18 January Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 17 January Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 17 January Gaviria wins opener and takes first yellow jersey".

Peter Sagan wins crash-marred stage 2 and takes yellow jersey". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 August Gaviria wins stage 4 in Sarzeau". Peter Sagan powers to stage five win".

Retrieved 29 July Dan Martin wins on the Mur de Bretagne". Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 13 July Greipel, Gaviria relegated in separate incidents during sprint in Amiens".

Retrieved 17 July Dylan Groenewegen takes stage eight for second straight win". Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 15 July John Degenkolb triumphs after Richie Porte crashes out on day of chaos on cobbles".

Degenkolb wins much-feared stage in Roubaix". Geraint Thomas wins stage 11 at La Rosiere, takes yellow". I thought I had it, but Peter Sagan was too fast".

Omar Fraile wins stage 14". Alaphilippe wins stage 16 after Adam Yates crash". Geraint Thomas tightens grip on yellow as Chris Froome cracks as Nairo Quintana ends five-year wait for victory".

Geraint Thomas edges closer to victory after second place on stage 19". Geraint Thomas set to win after maintaining lead on stage 20".

Geraint Thomas wins as Chris Froome finishes third". Geraint Thomas extends lead as Primoz Roglic zips to Stage 19 win". Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 16 January Archived from the original on 16 January Guide historique [ Historical guide ] PDF.

The record claimed by Desgrange was , during the Tour. Desgrange and his Tour invented bicycle stage racing. Initially he used total accumulated time as used in the modern Tour de France [27] but from to by points for placings each day.

By time, a rider coping with a mechanical problem—which the rules insisted he repair alone—could lose so much time that it cost him the race.

Equally, riders could finish so separated that time gained or lost on one or two days could decide the whole race. Judging the race by points removed over-influential time differences but discouraged competitors from riding hard.

It made no difference whether they finished fast or slow or separated by seconds or hours, so they were inclined to ride together at a relaxed pace until close to the line, only then disputing the final placings that would give them points.

The format changed over time. The Tour originally ran around the perimeter of France. Cycling was an endurance sport and the organisers realised the sales they would achieve by creating supermen of the competitors.

Night riding was dropped after the second Tour in , when there had been persistent cheating when judges could not see riders.

Desgrange said his ideal race would be so hard that only one rider would make it to Paris. Early tours had long multi-day stages, with the format settling on 15 stages from until After this, stages were gradually shortened, such that by there were as many as three stages in a single day.

The first Tours were open to whoever wanted to compete. Most riders were in teams that looked after them. Until Desgrange forbade team members from pacing each other.

Until he demanded that riders mend their bicycles without help and that they use the same bicycle from start to end. Exchanging a damaged bicycle for another was allowed only in By the end of the s, Desgrange believed he could not beat what he believed were the underhand tactics of bike factories.

The original touriste-routiers mostly disappeared but some were absorbed into regional teams. In Desgrange had a prostate operation. At the time, two operations were needed; the Tour de France was due to fall between them.

Desgrange persuaded his surgeon to let him follow the race. Desgrange died at home on the Mediterranean coast on 16 August Each organised a candidate race.

Both were five stages, the longest the government would allow because of shortages. National teams contested the Tour until Some nations had more than one team and some were mixed in with others to make up the number.

National teams caught the public imagination but had a snag: The loyalty of riders was sometimes questionable, within and between teams.

Sponsors were always unhappy about releasing their riders into anonymity for the biggest race of the year, as riders in national teams wore the colours of their country and a small cloth panel on their chest that named the team for which they normally rode.

The situation became critical at the start of the s. Sales of bicycles had fallen and bicycle factories were closing. The Tour returned to trade teams in Doping had become a problem culminating in the death of Tom Simpson in , after which riders went on strike, [60] [61] though the organisers suspected sponsors provoked them.

The Union Cycliste Internationale introduced limits to daily and overall distances, imposed rest days and tests were introduced for riders.

The Tour returned to national teams for and [62] as "an experiment". In the early s the race was dominated by Eddy Merckx , who won the General Classification five times, the Mountains Classification twice, the Points Classification three times and a record 34 stages.

While the global awareness and popularity of the Tour grew during this time, its finances became stretched. That number expands to about during the race itself, not including contractors employed to move barriers, erect stages, signpost the route and other work.

The oldest and main competition in the Tour de France is known as the "general classification", for which the yellow jersey is awarded: The oldest and most sought after classification in the Tour de France is the general classification.

If a rider is leading more than one classification that awards a jersey, he wears the yellow one, since the general classification is the most important one in the race.

The leader in the first Tour de France was awarded a green armband. Each team brings multiple yellow jerseys in advance of the Tour in case one of their riders becomes the overall leader of the race.

Riders usually try to make the extra effort to keep the jersey for as long as possible in order to get more publicity for the team and its sponsors.

Eddy Merckx has worn the yellow jersey for 96 stages, which is more than any other rider in the history of the Tour de France.

Four riders have won the general classification five times in their career: The mountains classification is the second oldest jersey awarding classification in the Tour de France.

The mountains classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition and was first won by Vicente Trueba.

Climbs are classified according to the steepness and length of that particular hill, with more points available for harder climbs.

The classification was preceded by the meilleur grimpeur English: The classification awarded no jersey to the leader until the Tour de France , when the organizers decided to award a distinctive white jersey with red dots to the leader.

At the end of the Tour, the rider holding the most climbing points wins the classification. Some riders may race with the aim of winning this particular competition, while others who gain points early on may shift their focus to the classification during the race.

The Tour has five categories for ranking the mountains the race covers. During his career Richard Virenque won the mountains classification a record seven times.

The point distribution for the mountains is as follows: The points classification is the third oldest of the currently awarded jersey classifications.

The classification was added to draw the participation of the sprinters as well as celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Tour.

The point classification leader green jersey is worn by the rider who at the start of each stage, has the greatest number of points.

In the first years, the cyclist received penalty points for not finishing with a high place, so the cyclist with the fewest points was awarded the green jersey.

From on, the system was changed so the cyclists were awarded points for high place finishes with first place getting the most points, and lower placings getting successively fewer points , so the cyclist with the most points was awarded the green jersey.

The number of points awarded varies depending on the type of stage, with flat stages awarding the most points at the finish and time trials and high mountain stages awarding the fewest points at the finish.

The winner of the classification is the rider with the most points at the end of the Tour. The classification has been won a record six times by Erik Zabel and Peter Sagan.

In the jersey was changed to red to please the sponsor. For almost 25 years the classification was sponsored by Pari Mutuel Urbain, a state betting company.

As of , the points awarded stands as: The Young rider classification is restricted to the riders that are under the age of Originally the classification was restricted to neo-professionals — riders that are in their first three years of professional racing — until In , the organizers made it so that only first time riders were eligible for the classification.

In , the organizers changed the rules of the classification to what they are today. This classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition , with Francesco Moser being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall.

The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification, although this was not done between and Two riders have won the young rider classification three times in their respective careers: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck.

The most combative rider wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white next day. An award goes to the most aggressive rider throughout the Tour.

It was initially not awarded every year, but since it has been given annually. Eddy Merckx has the most wins 4 for the overall award.

The competition does not have its own jersey but since the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow. Until , the leading team would wear yellow caps.

As of , the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets. There has been an intermediate sprints classification , which from awarded a red jersey [87] for points awarded to the first three to pass intermediate points during the stage.

These sprints also scored points towards the points classification and bonuses towards the general classification.

The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in , [88] but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, until , time bonuses for the general classification.

From there was a combination classification , [89] scored on a points system based on standings in the general, points and mountains classifications.

The design was originally white, then a patchwork with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was also abolished in The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge red lantern, as in the red light at the back of a vehicle so it can be seen in the dark and in past years sometimes carried a small red light beneath his saddle.

Such was sympathy that he could command higher fees in the races that previously followed the Tour. In and the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing.

Prize money has always been awarded. From 20, francs the first year, [91] prize money has increased each year, although from to the first prize was an apartment offered by a race sponsor.

The first prize in was a car, a studio-apartment, a work of art, and , francs in cash. Prizes only in cash returned in Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race.

The Souvenir Henri Desgrange , in memory of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands, [93] or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour.

The first prologue was in The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage.

This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied.

But in , Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the second lead held by Stephen Roche. He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour.

In the last stage was a time trial. During the Tour de France it was the scene of a Riders complained of abusive spectators who threatened their progress up the climb.

Another notable mountain stage frequently featured climbs the Col du Tourmalet , the most visited mountain in the history of the Tour. Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Alps.

The Tour de France stage to Galibier marked the th anniversary of the mountain in the Tour and also boasted the highest finish altitude ever: To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town.

In director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice.

With the switch to the use of national teams in , the costs of accommodating riders fell to the organizers instead of the sponsors and Henri Desgrange raised the money by allowing advertisers to precede the race.

The procession of often colourfully decorated trucks and cars became known as the publicity caravan. It formalised an existing situation, companies having started to follow the race.

The first to sign to precede the Tour was the chocolate company, Menier , one of those who had followed the race. Preceding the race was more attractive to advertisers because spectators gathered by the road long before the race or could be attracted from their houses.

Advertisers following the race found that many who had watched the race had already gone home. The caravan was at its height between and the mids, before television and especially television advertising was established in France.

Advertisers competed to attract public attention. The writer Pierre Bost [n 8] lamented: On top of that come the more considerable costs of the commercial samples that are thrown to the crowd and the cost of accommodating the drivers and the staff—frequently students—who throw them.

The number of items has been estimated at 11 million, each person in the procession giving out 3, to 5, items a day. Together, they weighed 32 tonnes 31 long tons; 35 short tons.

Numbers vary but there are normally around vehicles each year. Their order on the road is established by contract, the leading vehicles belonging to the largest sponsors.

The procession sets off two hours before the start and then regroups to precede the riders by an hour and a half. Vehicles travel in groups of five.

Their position is logged by GPS and from an aircraft and organised on the road by the caravan director—Jean-Pierre Lachaud [n 9] —an assistant, three motorcyclists, two radio technicians, and a breakdown and medical crew.

The first three Tours from — stayed within France. No teams from Italy, Germany, or Spain rode in because of tensions preceding the Second World War after German assistance to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War it was widely expected Spain would join Germany in a European war, though this did not come to pass.

Henri Desgrange planned a Tour for , after war had started but before France had been invaded. The route, approved by military authorities, included a route along the Maginot Line.

The first German team after the war was in , although individual Germans had ridden in mixed teams. The Tour has since started in Germany four times: Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned.

It would be difficult to find accommodation for 4, people, he said. Our movement, which is nationalist and in favour of self-government, would be delighted if the Tour came to Corsica.

Most stages are in mainland France, although since the mids it has become common to visit nearby countries: The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, outside France: The race was founded to increase sales of a floundering newspaper and its editor, Desgrange, saw no reason to allow rival publications to profit.

The Tour was shown first on cinema newsreels a day or more after the event. They used telephone lines. The first television pictures were shown a day after a stage.

The national TV channel used two 16mm cameras, a Jeep, and a motorbike. Film was flown or taken by train to Paris. It was edited there and shown the following day.

The first live broadcast, and the second of any sport in France, was the finish at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 25 July The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July Proposals to cover the whole race were abandoned in after objections from regional newspapers whose editors feared the competition.

In the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television for the first time, [] and in helicopters were first used for the television coverage.

The leading television commentator in France was a former rider, Robert Chapatte. At first he was the only commentator.

He was joined in following seasons by an analyst for the mountain stages and by a commentator following the competitors by motorcycle. Competition between channels raised the broadcasting fees paid to the organisers from 1.

The two largest channels to stay in public ownership, Antenne 2 and FR3 , combined to offer more coverage than its private rival, TF1.

The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world.

The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras. Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening.

The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.

Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave.

The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event. The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe.

Millions [] line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view. Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT.

The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France, [] the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.

Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.

It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage.

Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle is an minute short of This minute documentary has no narration and relies on sights and sounds of the Tour.

After the Tour de France there are criteria in the Netherlands and Belgium. These races are public spectacles where thousands of people can see their heroes , from the Tour de France, race.

The budget of a criterium is over , Euro, with most of the money going to the riders. Jersey winners or big-name riders earn between 20 and 60 thousand euros per race in start money.

Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since Early riders consumed alcohol and used ether , to dull the pain. In , the "Tour of Shame", Willy Voet , soigneur for the Festina team, was arrested with erythropoietin EPO , growth hormones , testosterone and amphetamine.

Police raided team hotels and found products in the possession of the cycling team TVM. Riders went on strike.

After mediation by director Jean-Marie Leblanc , police limited their tactics and riders continued. Some riders had dropped out and only 96 finished the race.

It became clear in a trial that management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping. Further measures were introduced by race organisers and the UCI , including more frequent testing and tests for blood doping transfusions and EPO use.

In , Philippe Gaumont said doping was endemic to his Cofidis team. In the same year, Jesus Manzano , a rider with the Kelme team, alleged he had been forced by his team to use banned substances.

Doping controversy has surrounded Lance Armstrong , who until the invalidation of his 7 victories was the most successful and arguably most prominent athlete to compete in the Tour, generating tremendous publicity for the Tour and the sport of cycling with his comeback from cancer and his charity Livestrong , which has raised hundreds of millions of dollars to support cancer survivors.

He said he had used skin cream containing triamcinolone to treat saddle sores. Favourites such as Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were banned by their teams a day before the start.

Seventeen riders were implicated. American rider Floyd Landis , who finished the Tour as holder of the overall lead, had tested positive for testosterone after he won stage 17, but this was not confirmed until some two weeks after the race finished.

Following his plea that other cyclists admit to drugs, former winner Bjarne Riis admitted in Copenhagen on 25 May that he used EPO regularly from to , including when he won the Tour.

His Cofidis team pulled out. The same day, leader Michael Rasmussen was removed for "violating internal team rules" by missing random tests on 9 May and 28 June.

Rasmussen claimed to have been in Mexico. After winning the Tour de France , it was announced that Alberto Contador had tested positive for low levels of clenbuterol on 21 July rest day.

Postal Service cycling team , implicating, amongst others, Armstrong. The report contained affidavits from riders including Frankie Andreu , Tyler Hamilton , George Hincapie , Floyd Landis , Levi Leipheimer , and others describing widespread use of Erythropoietin EPO , blood transfusion, testosterone, and other banned practices in several Tours.

One rider has been King of the Mountains , won the combination classification, combativity award, the points competition, and the Tour in the same year— Eddy Merckx in , which was also the first year he participated.

Twice the Tour was won by a racer who never wore the yellow jersey until the race was over. In , Jan Janssen of the Netherlands secured his win in the individual time trial on the last day.

The Tour has been won three times by racers who led the general classification on the first stage and holding the lead all the way to Paris.

2 Comments

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