Zheng he

zheng he

Dez. Der große Seefahrer Zheng He hat im ausgehenden Mittelalter große Entdeckungsfahrten unternommen. Kam er dabei in die Nähe Amerikas?. Zheng He stammte aus der chinesischen Provinz Yunnan und wurde geboren, sein Name war ursprünglich Ma He. Er wurde als zwölfjähriges Kind. Zheng He wurde in Kunming in der Provinz Yunnan geboren. Sein Geburtsname war Ma Sanbao, sein muslimischer Name Haji Mahmud itvillage.eu zehn.

He also brought back with him several envoys or representatives of various countries for the emperor to meet with and learn from. Once more back on the seas, Zheng He and his large fleet set sail for his fifth expedition He stopped in many of the same places, including Java, Sumatra, and also brought letters and riches to the different rulers Zheng He met.

On this trip, Zheng He sailed into new waters, to the Somali coast and down to Kenya, both in Africa. He returned back to China in He also visited Thailand, before making his way back to China in September By the time he returned, the emperor had died.

The new emperor suspended all expeditions. Zheng He remained in the royal court working for the new emperor, helping with the construction of a large temple.

But would be almost another 10 years before Zheng He went on his seventh and final voyage. Later Years and Death It was not until that Zheng He found himself in command of the large Treasure Fleet for his seventh voyage During this trip, Zheng He temporarily split from the fleet and made his hajj to the Muslim holy city of Mecca.

It is not known whether or not he made it back to China, or died on his final great voyage. He was able to expand new, friendly ties with other nations, while developing relations between the east-west trade opportunities.

Unfortunately, the official imperial records of his voyages were destroyed. The exact purpose of his voyages, the routes taken, and the size of his fleets are heavily debated because of their unique nature.

World Explorers and Discoverers. MacMillan Publishing Company, Beyond the Blue Horizon: China Intercontinental Press, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty.

State University of New York Press, Explorer Age of Discovery Quick Facts: Endnotes Leo Suryadinata, ed. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, , China Intercontinental Press, , 8.

State University of New York Press, , Brian Fagan, Beyond the Blue Horizon: Bloomsbury Press, , Baba for the men and Nyonya for the women.

In , the Indonesian Islamic leader and scholar Hamka credited Zheng He with an important role in the development of Islam in Indonesia.

These Muslims allegedly followed the Hanafi school in the Chinese language. The Chinese trader Sun Long even supposedly adopted the son of the king of Majapahit and his Chinese wife, a son who went on to become Raden Patah.

Modern historians point out that Chinese maritime commerce did not totally stop after Zheng He, that Chinese ships continued to participate in Southeast Asian commerce until the 19th century, and that active Chinese trading with India and East Africa continued long after the time of Zheng.

Moreover, revisionist historians such as Jack Goldstone argue that the Zheng He voyages ended for practical reasons that did not reflect the technological level of China.

However, the ban on maritime shipping did force countless numbers of people into smuggling and piracy. Despite the official neglect, the adventures of the fleet captured the imagination of some Chinese and novelizations of the voyages occurred, such as the Romance of the Three-Jeweled Eunuch in On his travels, Zheng He built mosques [ citation needed ] while also spreading the worship of Mazu.

He apparently never found time for a pilgrimage to Mecca but did send sailors there on his last voyage.

He played an important part in developing relations between China and Islamic countries. In modern times, interest in Zheng He revived substantially.

He is also mentioned in part of the main storyline of the first-person shooter game Far Cry 3. The stele was submerged and lost, but has been rebuilt.

In order to thank the Celestial Wife for her blessings, Zheng He and his colleagues rebuilt the Tianfei Palace in Nanshan, Changle county, in Fujian province as well prior to departing on their last voyage.

The three languages used in the inscription were Chinese, Tamil and Persian. Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho in Malacca.

Zheng He statue in the Quanzhou Maritime Museum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Zhenghe disambiguation.

This is a Chinese name ; the family name is Zheng. History of Islam in China. Chinese geography and Mao Kun map.

China portal Nautical portal Geography portal History portal Biography portal. The Xuanzong Shilu 17 September entry reports that Zhang Funama delivered a seal, because the old seal was destroyed in a fire.

Worlds Together Worlds Apart. Journal of Chinese Studies , No. Retrieved 17 October Roundtable Press, New York. Cosmopolitan City of Faiths".

The World of Khubilai Khan: Chinese Art in the Yuan Dynasty. The Ming Emperor Yongle. University of Washington Press. The great explorer Cheng Ho.

Asiapac Books Pte Ltd. His original family name was Ma, but the first name "Hajji" of both his father and grandfather indicate the possibility of Mongol-Arab ancestry, early Islamic faith, and the possibility that he knew Arabic and held an understanding of the Islamic regions which lay further West.

Understanding the legendary Chinese admiral from a management perspective. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Journal of the American Oriental Society , Vol.

Retrieved 8 October Journal of Chinese Studies. Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 12 June Tsui; Warren Cohen University of Hawaii Press.

The Heretical Nature of Science. Oxford University Press US. Retrieved 17 August China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, —". Journal of Military History.

Retrieved 14 November A Global Perspective on the Past. Archived from the original on Retrieved 4 December Zheng He and the Afro-Asian World.

National Palace Museum Peiping , Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 23 July Sea Charts of Pre-Modern China. The overall survey of the ocean shores.

A New History , Murray A. An investigation into the plausibility of ft treasure ships" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 25 July Retrieved 22 August Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 14 April Archived from the original on 30 April Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia.

Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 28 September Indonesia — Legends and Facts.

The Nine Walis ". Singapore Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Archived from the original on 13 March A Revision to Socio-economic History".

Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics.

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Zheng He , the great admiral of the third Ming emperor of China, led a series of expeditions into the Indian Ocean.

On his first expedition —07 Zheng landed in Sri Lanka but withdrew hastily; he returned in , defeated the ruler Vira Alakeshvara, and took….

Yet, except for efforts to regain Dai Viet Vietnam as a province, these expeditions had no permanent military or colonial ambitions and….

Zheng He visited no fewer than 37 countries, some as far away as the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the east coast of Africa almost as far south as Zanzibar,….

China , country of East Asia. It is the largest of all Asian countries and has the largest population of….

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If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. The grand project resulted in seven far-reaching ocean voyages to the coastal territories and islands in and around the South China Sea , the Indian Ocean , and beyond.

Admiral Zheng He was commissioned to command the treasure fleet for the expeditions. Six of the voyages occurred during the Yongle reign r.

Afterwards, the fleet made voyages farther away to the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa. The Chinese expeditionary fleet was heavily militarized and carried great amounts of treasures, which served to project Chinese power and wealth to the known world.

They brought back many foreign ambassadors whose kings and rulers were willing to declare themselves tributaries of China. Moreover, the Chinese structured and established control over an expansive maritime network in which the region became integrated and its countries became interconnected on an economic and political level.

The treasure voyages were commanded and overseen by the eunuch establishment whose political influence was heavily dependent on imperial favor.

Around the end of the maritime voyages, the civil government gained the upper hand within the state bureaucracy, while the eunuchs gradually fell out of favor after the death of the Yongle Emperor.

Over the course of the maritime voyages of the early 15th century, Ming China became the pre-eminent naval power by projecting its sea-power further to the south and west.

There is still much debate to this day about the actual purpose of the voyages, the size of the ships, the magnitude of the fleet, the routes taken, the nautical charts employed, the countries visited, and the cargo carried.

Under the reign of the Yongle Emperor , Ming China underwent a militaristic expansionism with ventures such as the treasure voyages.

In the third lunar month 30 March to 28 April of , a preliminary order was issued for Zheng He and others to take command of 27, troops to the Western Ocean.

The treasure fleet sailed to Champa , [22] [23] [25] Java , [22] [25] [26] Malacca , [22] [25] Aru , [25] [26] Semudera , [22] [25] [26] Lambri , [25] [26] Ceylon , [22] [25] [26] Quilon , [22] [25] and Calicut.

In , while returning homewards, Admiral Zheng He and his associates engaged Chen Zuyi and his pirate fleet in battle at Palembang.

The fleet arrived back in Nanjing on 2 October The imperial order for the second voyage was issued in October On 30 October , a grand director was dispatched with a squadron to Champa before Zheng He followed with the main body of the fleet.

In this voyage, the Chinese would forcibly settle the enmity between Ming China and Java. During the journey, the fleet visited the Pulau Sembilan in the Strait of Malacca in the seventh year of the Yongle reign , according to Fei Xin.

They obtained six logs, each eight or nine chi [c] in diameter and six or seven zhang [c] in length, whose aroma was pure and far-ranging.

The pattern [of the wood] was black, with fine lines. The possible confusion of whether Zheng He undertook the second voyage stemmed from the fact that a Chinese envoy was dispatched before Zheng He had departed with the main body of the fleet.

The imperial order for the third voyage was issued on the first month of the seventh year of the Yongle reign 16 January to 14 February Admiral Zheng He embarked for this voyage in During the homeward journey in , the treasure fleet would engage into a military confrontation with King Alakeshvara Alagakkonara of Ceylon.

Admiral Zheng He returned to Nanjing on 6 July On 18 December , the Yongle Emperor issued the order for the fourth voyage. The Yongle Emperor attended an archery contest for the Midsummer Festival of 5th day, 5th month, 11th year.

In , the fleet made a stop at northern Sumatra during the journey homeward from Hormuz. On 14 November , the Yongle Emperor returned to Nanjing.

Admiral Zheng He and other unnamed people had received orders to escort the ambassadors back home. Admiral Zheng He may have left the Chinese coast in the autumn of On 8 August , the fleet had returned to China.

The Taizong Shilu 3 March entry noted that the envoys of sixteen countries Hormuz and other countries were given gifts of paper and coin money, and ceremonial robes and linings before returning to their respective countries under escort of the treasure fleet.

On the return, several squadrons regrouped at Calicut and all the squadrons regrouped further at Semudera. On 14 May , the Yongle Emperor had ordered the temporary suspension of the voyages.

In , Admiral Zheng He departed on a diplomatic mission to Palembang. On 7 September , the Hongxi Emperor terminated the undertaking of further treasure voyages.

The Xia Xiyang provides valuable information, as described hereafter, about the dates and itinerary for this voyage. Of the eight destinations recorded for the seventh voyage in the Xia Xiyang , Hormuz was the westernmost place.

Admiral Zheng He is mentioned in the Mingshi in connection to the visits of Ganbali possibly Coimatore , [] [] Lasa , [] [] Djorfar, [] Magadishu, [] [] and Brava.

Hong Bao commanded a squadron for the journey to Bengal. Once in Calicut, noticing that local ships were being prepared for Mecca, Hong Bao sent seven Chinese men to accompany a ship bound for Mecca.

Dreyer suggests that Hong Bao may also have been involved with several other destinations, such as Djofar, Lasa , Aden, Mogadishu, and Brava.

Pelliot suggests that the squadrons detached from the fleet at Hormuz to travel to Aden, the East African ports and perhaps Lasa.

Dreyer states that the following countries may also have been visited by a few of the ships when the fleet passed by them: The Xia Xiyang also provided the dates and itinerary, as described hereafter, for the return route of the seventh voyage.

Dreyer states that they did not make port at Ceylon or southern India, because they were sailing under favorable conditions and were running before the southwest monsoon.

Admiral Zheng He came back with envoys from 11 countries, including one from Mecca. During the course of the voyages, Ming China had become the pre-eminent naval power of the early 15th century.

The trade was still flourishing long after the voyages had ceased. The nobility and military were an important part of the ruling elite during the Hongwu and Yongle reigns.

The voyages were diplomatic, militaristic, and commercial in nature. The voyages had a significant and lasting effect on the organization of a maritime network, utilizing and creating nodes and conduits in its wake, thereby restructuring international relationships and exchanges.

Consequently the sea-route was purified and tranquillised and the natives were enabled quietly to pursue their avocations.

The treasure fleet was, as Mills characterized, "an instrument of aggression and political dominance. Ma He, like many children, were taken captive and brought to serve as a eunuch in the Ming Court.

While serving in the royal court, the Emperor had noticed that Ma He was a hardworking boy. Ma He received military training, and soon became a trusted assistant and adviser to the emperor.

He also served as a bodyguard protecting the prince Zhu Di during many battles against the Mongols. Shortly after, Zhu Di became emperor of the Ming Dynasty.

Having served in the court for many years, Ma He was eventually promoted to Grand Eunuch. This was the highest rank a eunuch could be promoted to.

He would be in charge of palace construction and repairs, learned more about weapons, and became more knowledgeable in ship construction. In , Zhu Di, ordered the construction of the Treasure Fleet — a fleet of trading ships, warships and support vessels.

The Emperor chose Zheng He to command this fleet. He would be the official ambassador of the imperial court to foreign countries. The fleet had about vessels total, including 62 Treasure Ships, and more than 27, crewman.

Here, they met with the king and presented him with gifts. The many stops included trading of spices and other goods, plus visiting royal courts and building relations on behalf of the Chinese emperor.

He also saw several new animals, which he told the emperor about upon his return. Once again he stopped in places like Java, Sumatra; and visited ports on the coast of Siam today called Thailand and the Malay Peninsula.

The Chinese Emperor really wanted to display the wealth and power China had to offer. With 63 large ships, and a crew of over 27, men, Zheng He set sail.

He returned to Nanjing in He also brought back with him several envoys or representatives of various countries for the emperor to meet with and learn from.

Dreyer72—73 also notes that Chinese spielem make no mention when the sun merkur casino exactly happened during the course of the third voyage. However, Dreyer96 states that it cannot be proven whether it did or did zheng he happen. The stele was submerged and lost, kiel tischtennis has been rebuilt. The ship also is illustrated above the text. He hummels vertrag four sisters [1] [6] [7] [8] and one older brother. For fussball sport 1 second voyage, it is thought that the treasure fleet comprised ships. A New HistoryBayern los gewinner heute A. Rubinstein, page 49, M. In the midst of the rushing waters it happened bruno der sumo, when there was a hurricane, suddenly a divine lantern was seen shining at the masthead, and as soon as that miraculous light appeared the danger was appeased, so that even in the peril of capsizing one felt reassured and that there was no cause for fear. Translation in Ravenstein, E. However, the ban on maritime shipping did force countless broker vergleich aktien of people into smuggling and piracy. Unfortunately, our editorial approach golden slime casino not be able to accommodate all contributions. We have traversed bundesliga live 3.liga thanli of immense water spaces and have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising in the sky, and we have set eyes on barbarian regions far away hidden in a blue transparency of light vapors, while our sails, loftily tonybet tv like clouds day and night, continued their course [as rapidly] as a star, traversing those savage waves usa jackpot if we were treading a public thoroughfare Auf dem Weg wurden Lager für Güter eingerichtet. Kaiser Longqing hob sämtliche Restriktionsedikte wegen der mangelhaften Umsetzung und der negativen Folgen für die chinesischen Handelsbeziehungen wieder auf. Der englische Hobbyhistoriker Gavin Menzies, der selbst zur See gefahren ist, hat ein Buch herausgebracht ", als China die Welt entdeckte". Damit war die Zeit der chinesischen Entdeckungsfahrten beendet. Diese Querschotten nahmen die gesamte Rumpfhöhe ein und hatten keine Luken, sodass jede Abteilung nur von oben zugänglich war. Menzies hat Belege gesammelt, dass Chinesen an allen Küsten Amerikas kleine Kolonien gegründet haben. Der Neubau von Schiffen mit mehr als einem Mast wurde verboten, Unterlagen der Expeditionsreisen wurden konsequent vernichtet. In anderen Projekten Commons. Zheng Hes Lebensspanne umfasst 62 Jahre. Die neue Schiffsroute diente als Entlastung, um Handel und Vasallentreue zu bekräftigen. Zu den Aufgaben der Flotte gehörte auch Tributzahlungen für den Drachenthron einzutreiben. Indien war bereits im 7. Bekannt wurden die Schatzschiffe durch die sieben Fahrten des Admirals Zheng He von bis , die unter anderem nachweislich bis Afrika und an verschiedene Küsten des Indischen Ozeans führten.

Zheng He Video

"Zheng He" - The Great Voyager 1405-1433 AD Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils german open hamburg Bedingungen. Sie waren relativ klein und hatten Frischwasser an Bord. Sportska kladionica er auch Amerika erreicht hat, wird heute angenommen. Eine Kopie dieser Karte soll Columbus zugespielt worden sein. Kaiser Hongxi starb Menzies hat seine Ergebnisse der Royal Geographical Society präsentiert. Zheng He konnte zwar noch zu seiner letzten Fahrt aufbrechen doch danach war Schluss mit der Schatzschiff-Flotte.

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